May 4th, 2013
Synovial membrane is a soft connective tissue that lines the cavities of synovial joints, including the knees, elbows, shoulders, wrists and hips. It protects joints from wear and tear by lubricating them and reducing the friction between bones in joints.
Synovitis is the inflammation of synovial membrane. Toxic synovitis is a condition associated with the temporary inflammation of hip joint in children. The hip joint is a ball-and-socket joint consisting of the femur and the pelvis. Toxic synovitis affects the inner lining of the hip joint including the joint capsule and synovium (a membrane between the joint capsule and articular cartilage). Read the rest of this entry »
March 31st, 2013
Osteomyelitis is an inflammation of the bone or bone marrow. The term derived from the Greek words osteon, myelo- and –itis, meaning bone, marrow and inflammation respectively.
Osteomyelitis most commonly affects the spinal bones (the vertebrae) and hips in adults and the long bones of the shoulders and legs in children. Patients with diabetes may also develop inflammation of the bones of their feet.
Bone inflammation is a rare condition and only 2 out of every 10 000 people develop this condition. Read the rest of this entry »
February 18th, 2013
Rett syndrome is a genetic disorder of the nervous system, which develops in early childhood and causes mental and physical disability. The condition is associated with problems with coordination, movement, and communication. It is a rare disease that affects almost exclusively girls. About one in 10000-15000 girls develops the disorder.
The disorder is named after an Austrian pediatrician Andreas Rett (1924-1997) who was first to describe this condition in 1966. Read the rest of this entry »
January 21st, 2013
Angelman syndrome is a rare congenital condition, which affects the nervous system and is characterized by mental and physical retardation and different neural disorders, such as jerky movement, difficulty speaking, sleep disorder, and others. Frequent laughter and happy demeanor are especially common for patients with Angelman syndrome.
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December 19th, 2012
There a lot of nail diseases that may be caused by different bacterial and fungus infections. One of such diseases is paronychia, which usually affects finger’s areas where the skin meets nails or cuticle. Paronychia may be found both on toe and finger nails. Most commonly it occurs at the base of a nail.
This nail disease is often mistakenly referred to as whitlow or felon. However, the latter is another medical conditions and it affects the tip of the finger. Read the rest of this entry »
November 17th, 2012
Typhus is an infectious disease caused by Rickettsia bacteria and characterized by fever, rash, and delirium. The term derives from the Greek word meaning smoky or hazy, which describes the state of consciousness of affected people.
Historically typhus is known as one of the main causes of mortality during wars, famines, and other natural disasters.
The term typhus may be referred to one of the forms of this disease:
- Epidemic typhus is caused by R. prowazekii, which is transmitted from lice to humans. Its primary vector is Pediculus humanus. Read the rest of this entry »
November 10th, 2012
Arthritis is a common medical condition associated with inflammation and stiffness of the joints. There are several types of arthritis, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, septic arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and some others. In this article we will consider rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which is a chronic progressive disease causing painful deformity and immobility in the joints, especially in the fingers, wrists, ankles, and feet. Rarely this disorder may also affect tissues and organs, such as the heart and lungs. Read the rest of this entry »
November 3rd, 2012
Leptospirosis is an acute infectious bacterial disease that is transmitted from animals (rodents, dogs, and other mammals) to people. Leptospirosis has a number of alternative names, among which are Weil’s syndrome, canicola fever, 7-day fever, black jaundice, and some others. One of these names derives from Adolf Weil, who was the first to describe the disease in 1886. The bacterium which causes the infection was identified in 1908. Read the rest of this entry »
October 28th, 2012
Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune skin disease developing blisters or bullae between the epidermis (the outer skin layer) and dermis (skin layer below the epidermis). This disease most commonly occurs in elderly people of more than 70 years of age.
Causes and risk factors
Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune disease, which means that it occurs when the immune system mistakenly affects its own cells and tissues. However, the causes of this disorder are not well-understood. It is believed, that potential risk factors may include:
- elderly age;
- genetic predisposition;
- exposure to ultraviolet light;
- exposure to radiation therapy;
- taking certain drugs, including antibiotics, furosemide, captopril, penicillamine, and some NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) such as ibuprofen. Read the rest of this entry »
October 21st, 2012
Impetigo is a contagious bacterial skin infection forming pustules and sores. The infection is also referred to as school sores, as it is most common in children.
Causes and risk factors
Impetigo is caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes or Streptococcus aureus.
It is a highly contagious infection which is more likely to occur in pre-school children. However, adults may also be affected, especially if they play sports which involve close contacts, such as wrestling and rugby. Read the rest of this entry »